Vasconcelos published La raza c6smica [The Cosmic Race] in future, The Cosmic Race submits mestizaje as "the moral and material basis for the. This content downloaded from on Fri, 27 Mar PM While his most famous work is La raza cósmica of La raza cosmica: mision de la raza Iberoamericana, Argentina y Brasil. by: Vasconcelos, José External-identifier: urn:acs6:larazacosmicamis00vasc:pdf: a86eeef-8eebe2a0ac DOWNLOAD OPTIONS.

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"The days of the pure whites, the victors of today, are as numbered as were the days of their predecessors. Having fulfilled their destiny of. PDF Epub The Cosmic Race / La raza cosmica: A Bilingual Edition (Race in the Americas) PDF New E-Book - by José¡–asconcelos. Edition/Format: eBook: Document: English: Johns Hopkins paperbacks edView all editions Notes: Originally published: The cosmic race ; La raza cósmica.

Vasconcelos writes in the forward of the book, This is one of the most important books ever written in America". Indeed, Vasconcelos was the paid Nazi collaborator and spiritual traveler.

For the record, the following paragraph delivered by Churchill is the actual English role during WWII: Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war.

If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fall, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science.

Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, This was their finest hour!

Vasconcelos, on one hand, blames every failure in Latin America on the English undermining of Spanish supremacy. On the other hand, with dubious praise and silly insults, Vasconcelos writes that the English, have found success despite their implied inferiority: The defeats of Santiago de Cuba, Cavite, and Manila were distant but logical echoes of the catastrophes of the Invincible Armada and Trafalgar.

Now the conflict is set entirely in the New World.

A similar invention the motor would have been impossible in warm Egypt and, in fact, did not occur there, despite the fact that the Egyptians infinitely surpassed the intellectual capacity of the English race Vasconcelos wantonly ignores historical facts, such as how the English, acting from their own conscious rather than external pressure, abolished slavery and trained Africans for government service decades before Latin America considered it.

Even the United States, paying a huge price, abolished slavery earlier than Latin America, and has taken vastly larger steps to improve the civil rights of African Americans and Amerindians than any Latin American nation has yet to take. As for racial mixture among the North American English, mixture is abundantly self-evident in Black and Amerindian communities and even among American whites, who often have Amerindian ancestry and proud of it , thus reducing to absurdity the claim by Vasconcelos that the mixing of races is practically non-existent in the United States.

If, as alleged, there was greater laxity in racial relations in Latin America in , it was merely because laxity, chaos and corruption was the general rule for everything, including law enforcement and basic civil rights. Stories abound of siteian Amerindians openly hunted like pests by Spaniard plantation owners and "emancipated" Africans living virtually enslaved in the same conditions as under slavery.

Ironically, its likely that the longer period of slavery in Latin America has resulted in that segregation there is now more of an art than a science, yet still practiced widely and vigilantly.

Vasconcelos even rationalized why Mexico has acted exactly as did the United States on matters that were later considered immoral Mexico had eugenics programs, racial segregation, and a byzantine racial hierarchy , such as excluding Chinese immigrants.

He writes: It may happen sometimes and, in fact, it has already happened, that economic competition may force us to close our doors, as is done by the Anglo-Saxons, to an unrestrained influx of Asians. But, in doing so, we obey reasons of economic order. We recognize that it is not fair that people like the Chinese, who, under the saintly guidance of Confucian morality multiply like mice, should come to degrade the human condition precisely at the moment when we begin to understand that intelligence serves to refrain and regulate the lower zoological instincts, which are contrary to a truly religious conception of life.

IF we reject the Chinese, it is because man, as he progresses, multiples less, and feels the horror of numbers, for the same reason that he has begun to value quality. Vasconcelos seems to make up new theories as he writesjust like other inconsistent and irrational racial romantic Nazi theorists. Vasconcelos waxes eloquently about Latin America, and sometimes even sounds close at least in the revision to the idealist of his apologists, avoiding his racist Spaniard instincts until he cant bear it any longer, before unloading yet another ugly phrase on the reader.

Perhaps most ugly, though couched in stealth language, is his prescription of how the fifth or cosmic race will evolve during Vasconcelo's conception of a future age of aesthetics. In the fusion of races, Catholic Spaniards predominate, while the other races, particularly Africans, are attenuated to the point of insignificance. Most bizarrely of all, they will fade away because they want to, based on their desire to refrain from breeding for the greater benefit of some new aesthetic eugenics sweeping the world, arising from the Latin love of beauty and nourished in the racial fusion of Mexico.

He writes: Perhaps the traits of the white race will predominate among the characteristics of the fifth race, but such a supremacy must be result of the free choice of personal taste, and not the fruit of violence or economic pressure. The superior traits of culture and nature will have to triumph, but that triumph will be stable only if it is based on the voluntary acceptance by conscience and on the free choice of fantasy. Up to this date, life has received its character from mans lower faculties; the fifth branch will be the fruit of the superior faculties.

On the other hand, and this is essential, interbreeding will no longer obey reasons of simple proximity as occurred in the beginning when the white colonist took an Indian or black woman because there were no others at hand.

Jose Vasconcelos: the Nazi propagandist behind La Raza Mexican nationalism

In the future, as social conditions keep improving, the mixture of bloods will become gradually more spontaneous, to the point that interbreeding will no longer be the result of simple necessity but of personal taste or, at least, of curiosity.

The laws of emotion, beauty, and happiness will determine the selection of a mate with infinitely superior results than that of a eugenics grounded on scientific reason, which never sees beyond the less important portion of the love act.

Above scientific eugenics, the mysterious eugenics of aesthetic taste will prevail. Where enlightened passion rules, no correctives are necessary.

The very ugly will not procreate, they will have no desire to procreate. What does it matter, then, that all the races mix with each other if ugliness will find no cradle? Poverty, defective education, the scarcity of beautiful types, the misery that makes people ugly, all those calamities will disappear from the future social stage. The fact, common today, of a mediocre couple feeling proud of having multiplied misery will seem repugnant then, it will seem a crime.

In this way, in a very few generations, monstrosities will disappear; what today is normal will come to seem abominable. The lower types of the species will be absorbed by the superior type. In this manner, for example, the Black could be redeemed, and step by step, by voluntary extinction, the uglier stocks will give way to the more handsome.

Inferior races, upon being educated, would become less prolific, and the better specimens would go on ascending a scale of ethnic improvement, whose maximum type is not precisely the White, but that new race to which the White himself will have to aspire with the object of conquering the synthesis.

The Indian, by grafting onto the related race, would take the jump of millions of years that separate Atlantis from our times, and in a few decades of aesthetic eugenics, the Black may disappear, together with the types that a free instinct of beauty may go on signaling as fundamentally recessive and undeserving, for that reason, of perpetuation.

In this manner, a selection of taste would take effect, much more efficiently than the brutal Darwinist selection, which is valid, if at all, only for the inferior species, but no longer for man. While all the above is bad enough, Vasconcelos made it even easier for us to label him the fascist he was.

As noted previously, eight years after the war Vasconcelos lamented that the downfall of Nazi Germany was a worldwide defeat at the hands of Masonic and Jewish interests.

Perhaps you are thinking if this was true, youd have heard Vasconcelos before. Then did Life magazine get it wrong? Were pro-Nazi Mexicans in simply reflecting Hitlers histrionics but not his words?

Perhaps some were, but not Vasconcelos. He, as part of the Mexican elite, received education in contemporary European political philosophy, which was then a strange brew of fascism, progressivism, and futurism. It lead him to want for Mexicans what Hitler wanted for Germansethnic domination. The difference was that the hatred of Vasconcelos, while still including Jews, focused on Anglos Saxons. At 40 pages, La Raza Cosmica is a short read.

Yet, its Anglophobia is what drives Mexican contempt for American borders. It blunts the natural shame of emigrating north for survival off of a hated adversary, as though they are leaving a sinking Pacific atoll rather than a spacious, naturally rich nation run into the ground. La Raza Cosmica provides the "Big Lie" for shameless coveting, just as jealous Cain needed a lie to murder his brother Abel.

Vasconcelos Gets a Makeover To level economic disparities between nations after World War II, international political bodies saw utility in tacitly defining "primary evil" as originating from successful nations; other evils are then derivative. The only authorized explanation for disparities in national outcomes was not national choices, but oppression by nations which started industrializing earlier by some accident of history.

This thinking was intended to argue for rich nations to pay to fix poor nations, like no-fault insurance. It has ended up rationalizing a steady stream of crimes against humanity and treating radical ideologies and religions in the Third World as effects of, rather than causes of, suffering.

It patronizes tyrants and religious zealots, permitting them to carry on like brutal medieval monarchs with complete control of vast territory and the lives of millions of people. Since this reigning orthodoxy doesnt permit official academia to be critical of social movements in places like Mexicosupposedly a poor country despite its great wealthit has meant even a racial nationalist anticommunist like Vasconcelos was misbranded internationally as a leftwing intellectual, thus avoiding criticism abroad.

Yet he was not poor. He was part of the elite of Mexico. His hostility toward the English was not from experience, but fed by books he read, ironically, in American libraries while he attended school in Texas as an adolescent.

The Cosmic Race / La raza cosmica

While Vasconcelos sympathized with Germany after World War I, his reasons for siding against the American English hardly seem comparable to that of the Germans under the Versailles Treaty.

Unlike Germany, Mexico did not fight in the war, much less lose 2. Nevertheless, Vasconcelos, hated the United States with a passion, based on a host of comparably minor and ancient injustices, including British pirate raids occurring centuries ago in Latin America, all of which are transparent cover for the real root of his antipathy toward Americansfor offending the bloated pride and protocols of the Mexican elite.

While similar anti-American gripping led Che Guevara to take the low road of communism, Vasconcelos took the even lower road of Nazism. Vasconcelos concocted his Mexican cosmic race in To avoid being labeled a Nazi, in his revision he contrasted his imaginary race with an imaginary English American racethats any American who seems a bit of a WASPhe alleges is a monolithic cult of ethnic purity.

Of course, this was a crude act of propaganda running contrary to the facts of the overwhelming direction of American history. In fact, despite inheriting slaverywhich Latin America practiced to a greater degreethe United States was never a nation founded on ethnic lines. The English language and mild social characteristics it inherited from its founders is a matter of history and the willing adoption by millions of past immigrants through assimilation.

Far from being entrenched in ethnic imperialism, Americans in were at the worlds forefront of establishing universal civil rights, prosecuting Nazis, founding the United Nations, integrating the military and sports, and compensating interned Japanese Americansall before its formal civil rights movement had even began shortly thereafter. Absent rhetoric, the plans of Vasconcelos and Hitler are virtually the same fascist racial nationalism.

If Vasconcelos had been successful in his bid for the Mexican presidency in , Mexico would have likely joined Germany when Hitler took power in So-called aesthetic eugenics of La Raza Cosmica would have vastly expanded eugenics programs already established in Mexico.

Instead, Vasconcelos lost the election, so rather than becoming a Mexican Hitler, or Hitler becoming a German Vasconcelos, he became a Mexican Goebbels, a little Nazi propaganda minister in Mexico. Karl Marx spoke of the lumpenproletariatthe rogue workers at each social class.

There are also rogue fascists at each social classthe lumpenfascist. Vasconcelos was an upper-class lumpenfascist, while his legions now storming the U. They have been easily indoctrinated, fed a diet of anti-Americanism by the elite operators of news propaganda machines like Univision et al.

The destructive results play out on stages like that of a soccer game between the United States and Mexico.

After World War II, various political elites decided, in order to hide their associations with fascism, to conflate fascism with traditional Western culture and expunge them both from society. This has been fairly easy to achieve because, ironically, the traditions of the West are more rational and thus easier to experiment upon than in most other traditional cultures, which tend to react violently to change. The West is to be culturally dissolved and economic power shifted to the numerically greater "developing" world.

The error in this decision was that fascist tendencies are not limited to Western culture, but rather are a social construct that arises when certain conditions are created. Fascist politics can arise anywhere. Indeed, prior to Hitler, fascism and progressivism were virtually identical. But after Hitler, the fascism brand name was irrevocably lost. Progressives attempted to get back on the right side of history, after the war, by disassociating themselves with fascism, and scapegoating Western culture itself.

The result has degenerated into an attempt to get on the right side of spin. It could likely end in absolute Orwellianismthe official inversion and violent denial of reality, as under Stalinism, Maoism and Islam.

In the West inversion manifests in memes like people of color cant be racist, which lay the groundwork for unlimited scapegoating and criminality. Its prestigious schools like USC must now lie about their crime-ridden locations.

Two Chinese foreign students were recently murdered near the USC campus. USC is now being sued for misleading them. Ironically, while Vasconcelos plan for defeating the United States is moving along, his replacement theory is not doing so well.

Spaniards are decreasing in Latin America and in Spain itself. Those Hispanics Vasconcelos did not favor are growing but have yet to improve economically, too often mentally possessed of the legendary cruelty of medieval Spain transmitted over space and time to Mexico. It was after the original Reconquista that the social and physical tools of oppression which Muslim colonizers used on Spain were adopted to advance the Inquisition, then carried by conquistadors to the New World, where they are still wielded by Mexican drug cartels to terrorize, torture and behead, often spilling blood across the southern U.

Denial doesnt change underlying reality. Nature has its ways of correcting imbalance. Destructive forces dont endure. If the cultural West is subsumed by regressive forces like La Raza and Islamic supremacism, those too will be liquidated by militant technocracies like those rising in the Far East.

The irony is that anti-Western multicultural values has resulted in less diversity, not more. Pandering to Islamists is eradicating Christianity in the Middle East. Pandering to the La Raza lobby means Mexican culture simply replaces traditional American culture in the United States.

Likewise, through massive immigration, Western nations are being culturally hijacked by corrupt and failed states, which themselves remain as culturally pure as a century ago. This essay has made several analogies between the La Raza fascism and Islamic jihad or Islamofascism. Recently, the two movements have seen substantial convergence, as a rapidly growing jihadist presence emerges in Mexico, composed of both immigrants from the Middle East and native Mexican converts, as documented by U.

Even the Catholic Vasconcelos would be alarmed by this development. He foresaw this period of chaos as necessary, and humanity had to wait: So that we shall not be forced to deny our own fatherland Spain , it is necessary that we live according to the highest interests of the race, even though this may not be yet in the highest interest of humanity.

But a unified, indoctrinated, 1. It is readying itself to correct the imbalance due to the vacuum left by the West. It knows corrupt and failed states are not innocent, but are decadent with self-inflicted damage. While in previous centuries such internal depravity would be quickly pillaged by outsiders, today the United Nations lets these countries work things out.

Competition for scarce resources will soon spell the end of such patronizing.

The United States, inundated with failed dogma from corrupt states, is not immune. Technology has obsoleted Vasconcelos theory. The future cosmic race will not be a coordinated fusion of peoples consulting their aesthetic conscious before procreating. Robotic and genetic enhancement has arrived and its demand will work far faster than any traditional fusion can. One can only speculate where this might lead humanity in the next century.

Though Vasconcelos was a fascist, his reputation has been protected because of his Mexican birthplace and his Hispanic name, conflated in the public mind with mestizo field workers and Amerindians in Chiapas fighting for human rights against, ironically, Mexican elites like Vasconcelos.

Today, many so-called Hispanic politicians and celebrities openly support the fascist La Raza campaign. Murguia was born and raised in that most American place, Kansas, in a middle-class, predominately English-speaking home. She took full advantage of American educational and career opportunities.

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Yet Murguia still rejected this genuine American integration path, and chose instead to promote Mexican ethnic nationalism. She now leads the largest racial lobby in the United States, La Raza.

One wonders if Murguia has considered if Vasconcelos would deem her worthy of his cosmic race, or instead should forego procreation in the age of aesthetics. The common sense of race also informs repertoires of behavior. We follow the scripts laid out for us by common sense not only in our thinking but in our decision-making and in our actions. When we uncritically rely on racial ideas, we often, in turn, practice racism. We treat people according to their place in the racial hierarchies created by society and, by doing so, perpetuate those hierarchies.

The segregation in our cities and workplaces—or, more concretely, the dilapidated conditions in the schools that supposedly served East Los Angeles—resulted from actions based on widely accepted racial ideas. I do not mean to suggest that all action takes place on the common sense level, for intentional racism still plays a large part in constructing the society we now live in. Nevertheless, racial common sense has long played a prominent role in both fostering discriminatory behavior and in rendering such behavior normal and legitimate.

Today, after several decades of declining overt prejudice, it is likely that most racism is unconsidered and reflexive, the product of thoughtless reliance on background ideas of race. Racism is now most often common sense. Racism as common sense, I contend, explains the discrimination at issue in the Chicano cases.

Called upon to pick grand jurors from a cross-section of Los Angeles county, the judges instead consistently nominated their friends and neighbors.

Under questioning by Acosta, the judges denied that they ever intended to discriminate against Mexicans or anyone else; they insisted that they desired only to pick qualified persons for the grand jury. But as became clear in their testimony, patterns of social, educational, residential, and workplace segregation ensured that the judges had few Mexican acquaintances, save perhaps their gardeners, and that they regarded Mexicans as unqualified to 8 RACISM ON TRIAL serve on the grand jury.

The judges assumed that persons like themselves—white, older, affluent, and male, or married to someone like that—deserved that honor. For the judges, it was simply indisputable that people like themselves were dependable, competent, and qualified, meriting not only a seat on the grand jury but the esteem accorded friends.

Likewise, it was common knowledge to the judges that Mexicans were, well, inferior. Intentional discrimination was unnecessary. To systematically exclude Mexicans from the Los Angeles grand jury, the judges only had to rely on what seemed to them common sense.

Common sense racism also explains police practices in East Los Angeles, practices that involved pervasive hostility and brutality toward Mexicans. The police disdained the residents there as racial inferiors and approached them armed with preconceptions regarding their deficient character, innate criminal tendencies, propensity for senseless violence, and unbridled taste for alcohol.

Judicial bias and police malpractice together imposed a reign of legal violence on East Los Angeles that can be largely explained by the operation of race as common sense. The result was a constant, unremarkable, unconsidered racism that exacted its toll in human lives. Many Chicanos insisted that legal violence against the Mexican community proved that Mexicans were non-white. Although this violence took various forms, the Chicano activists almost always pointed to direct physical violence, the sort that bashed heads, broke bones, and wrecked lives.

Scholars commonly define law abstractly, as a body of court decisions and legislative statutes. I do not mean to diminish the importance of such violence or to imply some sharp distinction between physical and psychic harm. Rather, the massive police presence, the constant police brutality, the hostile judges, and the crowded jails convinced Mexicans that they were not white. Law carried out on the street— as opposed to law on the books—convinced many Mexicans that they were Chicanos.

After all, racism against the Mexican community stretched back well more than a hundred years and had been much more virulent before Similarly, law enforcement had aggressively and brutally mistreated the Mexican community for decades. Indeed, one scholar argues that legal repression spurred Mexican political mobilization in East Los Angeles in the s and s.

In Part Three, I examine the development and contours of the new Chicano racial ideology of the late s. The black movement inspired many groups, including the Chicanos, and also provided important lessons about protest tactics and organizing strategies. Since the mids, the spectacle of black protesters encountering violent repression had transfixed the nation.

The scenes from Selma and Birmingham, and later Watts and Detroit, powerfully communicated that whites would respond with violent resistance to minorities who protested social inequality.

In turn, the very quality of being obvious made this component that much more a matter of common sense: when minorities protested, legal violence followed. This tripartite linkage among protest, repression, and race strongly contributed to the rise of a brown identity among Mexicans in East Los Angeles. When news of the arrests of the East L. Thirteen spread, the Mexican community almost immediately conceptualized the mass indictments and potentially lengthy sentences in rhetoric that tracked the common sense connections established during the black struggle.

Before the arrests, there had been relatively little talk of a brown racial identity; in their wake, a new language quickly emerged that painted the activists as racial militants persecuted by the police for demanding justice.

No doubt the Black Power movement directly influenced this rhetoric. But the Chicano analysis drew more heavily on the new common sense that linked protest, repression, and race. As the organ for the Brown Berets, La Causa chronicled the evolving ideas of a radical Chicano group. Instead, they drew upon the protest-repression-race connection, and, more importantly, they accepted popular conceptions of race almost wholesale. Thus, the militants believed that they were brown as a matter of descent and biology, not by virtue of having made a political choice—they understood themselves to be recognizing facts of nature, not inventing them.

The Chicano movement remade Mexican racial identity but did so while accepting and in turn proclaiming that race determined individual identity, gender relations, and group destiny. Common sense impelled not only the shift to Chicano identity, but also the form it took. I close with an epilogue that draws central lessons from the Chicano movement and traces into the present several strands of the East L. Chicano story. Meanwhile, the level of legal violence in our society grows, as does its role in constructing racial identities.

The legal violence deployed in the name of these wars further entrenches racial ideas, both among the targets of state force and for society as a whole. More than ever, we know ourselves by how the police and the courts treat us.

If we receive respect, courtesy, fair treatment, and due process, we are white; if we are harassed, beaten, arrested, or detained by executive fiat, we are black, brown, yellow, or red. We as a country find ourselves today where the East Los Angeles protesters were on the eve of the high school walkouts.

We must remedy deep inequalities structured along racial lines, and we must devise conceptions of race and racism that allow us to do so. We should learn from the judges and the police in East Los Angeles, and also from the Chicano militants who fought them, what happens when ideas about race and status are allowed to remain in the background, unexamined and unquestioned by people divided by race.

Then, as today, leaving the corporate high-rises and squat government buildings of downtown Los Angeles to travel just a mile or two east, crossing over the wide concrete aqueduct that carries the Los Angeles River in a shallow trickle, is to journey into the Mexican world of East L. It is a world of three-story commercial buildings strung out along four-lane thoroughfares, the bright signs worn with age, the roads gritty, spotted, choked with parked cars; of dun-colored tract homes and California bungalows on small lots, some pretty and well-tended, others in disrepair; of crowded apartment buildings scattered about, few with any charm.

It is a community of small Mexican restaurants painted in reds and greens, of corner grocery stores where radios blare rancheras and Spanish-language commercials hawk cheap furniture and used cars, a place where people and their complicated lives spill into the streets.

In the population of East Los Angeles was relatively poor. Among its , residents, median family income was less than three-quarters that in Los Angeles City. Owner-occupied homes accounted for slightly more of the residences in East Los Angeles than in the city; and one-quarter more people than in Los Angeles as a whole were living in the same home in that they had occupied in Rather, as in the Southwest generally, in about 85 percent of the Mexican population held U.

Yet, it was also a minority community, and this fact played a powerful role in the unique problems confronting its Mexican residents. These schools, with a student body over three-quarters Mexican, provided the barest education.

The result could also be traced to scant resources and severe overcrowding. Thousands of students jammed hallways and classrooms designed for hundreds; they ate in shifts in the cafeteria and scrambled to find restrooms not closed for lack of maintenance; they shared tattered and outdated books and science equipment, when available at all.

But a large part of the problem in the East Los Angeles schools was race. Only 3 percent of the teachers and 1.

The Cosmic Race

Bigoted views of Mexican students distorted how teachers and administrators conceived of their roles as educators. Despite their campaign, little changed in the East Los Angeles schools.

Among the groups that formed in Los Angeles during this time, several stand out. In Mexican college students convened a regional conference to discuss their role in the struggle for social change. Calling themselves United Mexican American Students UMAS , they voted to establish Mexican student organizations on college campuses throughout Los Angeles to address issues confronting themselves and their community.

At least initially, these new groups focused on education. The launching of activist-oriented community newspapers around this time strengthened the campaign for educational reform.

Why is there a chance my child will be among the lowest in the nation in reading ability? Why is there a chance my child will never know the language, culture and history of his own people?

Merry Christmas brother. Next year the community is going to be heard one way or another. In the fall of high school students in East Los Angeles began developing plans to walk out of their schools. Sal Castro, a civics teacher at Lincoln High School and himself a product of the East Los Angeles barrio, joined in the nascent mobilization.

There has to be a change, a complete change. With the assistance of Castro, the student activists enlisted the help of the UMAS chapters in Los Angeles, as well as the support of various college professors, professionals, and clergy already active in community politics.

The student militants formed strike committees at Garfield, Roosevelt, and Lincoln high schools. They also formed a central committee to draft demands and coordinate any actual strikes. The committee formulated thirty-six demands, including such things as reduced class size, more teachers and counselors, expanded library facilities, and an end to the requirement that students contribute janitorial services.

Influenced by the talk of strikes circulating generally, students at Wilson staged an unplanned walkout during the lunch period. Before they reached a decision, the students at Garfield took matters into their own hands.

It is clear, though, that UMAS and the Brown Berets did more than simply protect the students; they also played an important role in encouraging them to walk out. The Brown Berets, in particular, arrived at various schools with picket signs and probably called in the false fire alarms and bomb threats that forced school officials to move students out of the classrooms. On Wednesday, March 6, 2, students walked out of Garfield; at Roosevelt, despite locked gates and the arrival of the police, determined students also marched out.

Students from the various schools walked out simultaneously and met at Hazard Park for a a. According to Castro, the high school principal came to his classroom at a.

If I am here in an empty classroom, I mean, who am I teaching, an empty wall? It was really coming down. In the driving rain, kids without raincoats, without umbrellas, some kids in T-shirts, were walking out. Wave upon wave upon wave, they came. I was out there in the rain, my face wet.

Congressman, Ed Roybal, the first Mexican elected to federal office from California. During one week in March , perhaps ten thousand students walked out of area high schools in a political storm that rolled through East Los Angeles, sweeping its Mexican residents into the politics of protest.

Police Chief Tom Reddin and Governor Ronald Reagan denounced the walkouts as the handiwork of outside agitators, blaming most prominently the Brown Berets, who catapulted into the spotlight as a militant nationalist front. For many people in East Los Angeles, the student strikes symbolized the awakening of Mexican youth to a political consciousness of themselves and of their ability to fight for equal treatment.

Many adults, rather than viewing the students in negative terms, felt proud of their efforts at self-determination. For others, though, the walkouts seemed a grossly inappropriate response to school conditions, a contribution to the problem rather than to the solution. Lincoln High School teacher Richard Davis opined in an open letter to the community that the real issue was the Mexicans themselves: Most of the Mexican-Americans have never had it so good. Before the Spanish came, he was an Indian grubbing in the soil, and after the Spaniards came, he was a slave.

When it comes to going to school—free and the best in the world—he is passive. We are not educating your children as we should and as we can. They want to do a good job. The East Los Angeles schools reflected, and in turn perpetuated, the degraded status of Mexicans in California. Long a source of community concern, horrendous school conditions served as a flash point. They signaled as well the dramatic rise of a new racial and political identity among the residents of East Los Angeles.

There was a price for this new militancy, however. Within a few months of the walkouts, indictments and arrests cast the Chicano movement into a new trajectory of violence and confrontation with the courts and police. Plainclothes and uniformed officers burst into the offices of La Raza, where they handcuffed and arrested Eliezer Risco and Joe Razo.

They also removed thousands of pamphlets and leaflets intended for use in a campaign to oppose a police bond measure up for a vote the following Tuesday. He held a scholarship to the University of California at Irvine for the fall. Searching his residence, the police confiscated not only his college course books but the term paper he had just completed for class.

Thirteen during their weekend raids. He worked as an engineer in the local aerospace industry and was active in community politics, chairing the local Mexican American Political Association chapter, as well as the Hollenbeck Democratic Club. Both had been participating in Martin Luther King Jr.

That sum greatly exceeded normal bail amounts; it represented ten times the bail usually imposed on those charged with burglary and twice the sum typically required in cases of assault with a deadly weapon. When Sal Castro attempted to return to his teaching duties the next morning, the principal told him to report to the Board of Education, which in turn informed Castro that he had been reassigned to non-teaching duties because of the felony charges against him.

In part, the mass arrests themselves spurred the renewed protest, but the charges against the defendants provided a special impetus. The indictments charged the Thirteen with multiple counts of disturbing the peace, failing to disperse, and trespassing on school grounds, all misdemeanors. Because of the conspiracy charges, each of the defendants faced a possible year sentence. The late night arrests, the high bail, the multiple felony counts, and the possibility of long sentences infuriated the community.

During the first weekend after the arrests, East Los Angeles community members demonstrated on the streets in front of the L. Police Department, and some incarcerated defendants began a hunger strike to protest their arrests as political persecution. In he moved with his family to Riverbank, California, in the heart of the Central Valley, where his parents hoped to survive the waning years of the Great Depression as field workers.

When I was five he encouraged me to argue and fight with him, which is unusual in a Mexican family. I guess that is where I became as nasty as I am.Vasconcelos writes that Spanish supremacy in the New World was shortcircuited, betrayed by a fellow LatinNapoleon: The so-called Latins, well endowed with genius and courage, seized the best regions, the ones they thought were the richest, while the English had to be satisfied with what was left to them by a more capable people.

I do not mean nationals of Mexico but United States residents. Judicial bias and police malpractice together imposed a reign of legal violence on East Los Angeles that can be largely explained by the operation of race as common sense.

Not surprisingly, Vasconcelos fit his own definition of perfection perfectly. Setting the weapon down, Acosta challenged the wide-eyed jurors to recollect exactly what the judge and prosecutor had been doing while Acosta had waived the gun about. Texas was the first Supreme Court case to extend constitutional protections to Mexicans. In this way, in a very few generations, monstrosities will disappear; what today is normal will come to seem abominable.

Four years after the Falklands War, the victory of Argentina was seen by the nation and by fans as a way of settling the score even. The intentional failure to stop millions of antiAmerican freeloaders and followers of a Mexican Nazi from crossing the border of the United States and wreck economic, environmental and cultural havoc stands in stark contrast to the Cold War, in which patriotic hawks drove policy.

RENATO from Orem
I do relish studying docunments almost . Look through my other posts. I'm keen on triathlon.