PDF | “Advanced Skills for Communication in English: Book I” is a textbook English after my college hours to improve my language skills. To improve English speaking, the best thing to do is to talk with a native speaker. Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you . Jason Mraz, you can test your skills with something a bit more difficult: rap!. 'adequate'? GRAMMAR thinking about grammar listening to English. (audio and video). You can develop your skills through. Top Tips for. Speaking Skills.
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How To Improve My English Communication - PDF Download. × ( KB, views). File Type: pdf erothbridunin.tk ( KB, views). Effortless English focuses exclusively on speaking and listening skills. The system is designed to improve your speaking power as quickly as possible- using . How To Improve English Speaking Skills: The following are a few tips for improving English speaking skills. Use these tips every day.
Pay Attention to Stressed Sounds English uses stresses in words and sentences. Listen to where native speakers place the emphasis when they speak. Try to repeat it the same way to improve English stress in your own speech. Sometimes the placing the stress on the wrong syllable completely changes the word.
Learn to hear the difference! Sing Along to English Songs Singing along to your favorite English songs will help you become more fluent.
Once you can sing along to Taylor Swift and Jason Mraz , you can test your skills with something a bit more difficult: rap! Rap is a great way to practice English because often the words are spoken like regular sentences. However, the rapper uses a stronger rhythm and faster speed.
How To Improve My English Communication - PDF Download
Make speaking easier by learning the different forms of any words you learn. Knowing the correct way to use a word in any kind of sentence is important.
This knowledge will help you while speaking. Learn Phrases, Not Words An even better idea to improve English is to learn word phrases, not just words. Phrases and expressions can be helpful for sounding more natural when you speak. Learn Your Most Common Sayings Take some time to really notice how you speak in your native language. What words and phrases do you use the most often? Learn how to say your most commonly used phrases and words in English. Knowing them in English will help you speak as well in English as you do in your native language.
Prepare for Specific Situations Are you learning English speaking for a specific reason? For example, are you learning English so you can get a job in an English-speaking company? Before you go to a place where you have to speak English, you can practice what you might have to say.
Answer the questions a waiter might ask you. Try talking about food and menus. You can be your best helper or your worst enemy when learning to speak fluently! Just relax! If you get stuck or confused, just take a big breath and start over.
Speak slower if you have to. Take time to pause and think about your next sentence. Do whatever it takes to become more comfortable with speaking English. Focus on speaking fluently instead of correctly. Say every sentence out loud to yourself. Even if you have nobody to talk to in English, you can still build confidence and master fluency on your own time. Now you know exactly how to improve spoken English by yourself and should feel confident doing so!
He considers listening and speaking as oral communication skills. Both are integrated skills and supports in developing each other. As Brown, , also asserts that the integration of listening and speaking skills is termed as oral communication skills because listening can be developed indirectly by integrating it to speaking. The literature states that communication is an exchange of ideas between people either orally or in writing.
It is also an exchange of meaning and understanding. Meaning is central to communication. Sender S and Receiver R are involved in the process. In this research both speaking and listening skills are considered OCSs. Both supports each other in the development of language proficiency and without either OC remain meaningless.
Effective OC cannot be simply 'studied' by reading. In the process of developing oral proficiency, speaking comes later. It is a productive skill which comes after receptive skill i. In English as Second Language ESL contexts, speaking is perhaps the most important of the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing Carter and Nunan ; Celce-Murcia Speaking is a linguistic activity which, like language itself, consists of several elements: viz.
Several studies have examined developing the students' speaking skills. Within qualitative research paradigm an action research design was adopted as it helped in using different teaching strategies and to develop action plans cycles in the form of lessons to improve and change the situation. The implementation and intervention of this action research took seven weeks long duration. Since its pre-intervention, four selected research participants' improvement was assessed through ' individual participant's assessment tool' checklist see appendix 2.
Participants and data collection The research was conducted at GradeB whose strength was 61 of whom only four research participants two boys and two girls Akram, Hammid, Mehrin and Khatija, all pseudonym were selected for this study.
All four participants had mix language ability. They had low socio- economic background and very basic level understanding of the English language. Moreover, the Class Teacher CT acted as co-planner and critical friend in teaching and observing lessons however, researchers played dual role as principal teacher and action researcher during the entire 20 International Journal of English Language Teaching Vol. A variety of tools were used to collect data throughout the three phases.
The methods which used were observations, interviews, and audio recordings of the teaching sessions, reflections and document analysis. These all were also audio-recorded and transcribed very carefully. Overall three cycles were completed with 14 interventions because one cycle took three lessons to complete. In lesson planning three main teaching strategies were focused such as demonstrations and conversations, discussion and role plays. In pre-intervention stage, three classroom teaching of CT, interviews of him and participants were observed and taken very carefully.
Reconnaissance findings In order to know the current practices of teaching OCSs three classroom observation and interviews with participants were conducted accordingly. The findings of reconnaissance showed that traditional teaching methods such as grammar translation method and rote learning were found to be used mostly in classroom which had made the classroom more teacher centred rather than student centred.
Text book was used as main source of teaching. After the lesson he wrote down vocabulary on the left side and Urdu meaning on right side as it depicts: Busy: Masroof hona Funny: Mazah Talkative: Ziada batey karne wala Newcomer: Naya jo abi aye. Look at that teacher pointing towards me is new comer. These teaching practices revealed that the teacher had been using traditional ways of teaching in which students had very less opportunities to enhance 21 International Journal of English Language Teaching Vol.
The teacher spoke most of the time using L1 Urdu language and students were provided very few opportunities to speak. This situation is similar to what other researchers Bahdar, ; Hussain, ; Bashiruddin, ; Sadrud-Din, ; Mehdi, ; Panah, found in their research studies. This compelled him to use traditional methods in his teaching English in classroom Memon, ; Hassan, As the teacher occupies a place of authority, the students remain submissive.
This leads to anxiety.
It is evident from the findings that the students get confused whenever they are asked to speak English. This is due to the fact that they are in a high anxiety situation p. Students used to be reluctant in participation in classroom because lack of opportunities provided by the teacher and there were some other reasons as well such as fear of making mistakes or being laughed at by other students as Ghafoor, ; Ashraf, ; Shughri, findings also confirmed.
As a result, the students spent most of the time copying the textbook tasks and teacher focused only on reading and written work. There was no separate period for improving speaking and listening skills.
The teacher frequently used L1 in classroom teaching; therefore students got less exposure to English language Bahdur, ; Shughri, The findings of Rezvani shows that code-switching are a frequently applied strategy and a valuable resource for bilingual teachers in foreign language classrooms.
It also indicates inability to use accurate and fluent English which remains main hurdle in developing language skills in the context of developing countries particularly in Pakistan. The study conducted in Singapore mixed code is socially disapproved and banned in classroom. Teacher used mixed switching strategy to control his class as well as teaching important lessons which are to be learnt by students necessarily. In interview CT shared the similar response by giving reason: Look, we have to complete syllabus for examination purpose.
If tomorrow someone comes from our higher authorities, he will directly check the notebooks of these children. He will never ask about how are you, what is your name etc. Work, work, work, bla, bla, bla,.
These thematic findings clearly indicated towards the improvement of students OCSs. In first classroom session, an activity was demonstrated before assigning to students. Thereafter, students were also given an opportunity for describing their likes and dislikes with demonstrations.
Two participants instantly came as volunteer in front of class as either had called their names out since in previous observation it was found that without calling their names out they would not come to perform any activity.
They were more attentive and listening to the sounds and conversation of English in classroom. However, they were laughing and enjoying which showed that they had been exposed to English language in a friendly environment.
With it they kept speaking continue of having a lot of fun and imitation each other in a class.
The class was kept as social as possible by understanding that language learning occurs in a social setting Vygotsky Before assigning task, it was demonstrated so that students could get ideas and complete it with understanding.
Demonstrating the lesson and activities dramatically enhance interactions and 23 International Journal of English Language Teaching Vol. In demonstrating the lesson English was kept medium of instruction strictly. Research also suggests that to bring students up to speaking level they should be encouraged to participate in listening activities such as one student may listen to his partner so that listening goes forward and speaking may take place.
In this regards students get to see gesture, facial expression and understand action of the role player. Mazaq udatey hai jaisa k mai abi direction padhaney k liye khadi hoi thi chair per, up chair tu usama is very laughing. I am shy, I am go to take my seat…shy, this children is very laughing. I was shy.
So I went to take my seat. The children laugh a lot. Some students are intelligent and know these things some are very weak. This conversation gives a clear picture of the classroom where students were learning with fun in an encouraging environment.
It was a new environment for them because they had more freedom to laugh, joke and talk. These fun learning and talking in classroom greatly impacted OCSs and helped in getting it improved. Many research studies Block, ; Dobson,; Sadruddin informed that an encouraging environment facilitates students to perform better in speaking skills. These studies also suggest to encourage speech, first, a teacher researcher establish a comfortable, safe environment, one in which the students feel accepted and worthy.
Houk, If teacher encourages students it will enable them to do a task in good way. It was also learnt that participation can also be improved setting social roles. While teaching lesson three, more questions were asked to get students involved in learning. Students started to give good responses, as in warm up activity 24 International Journal of English Language Teaching Vol. Thus, it indicated that students had been improving with passage of time.
It was depicted from the presentation of group activity work whose aim was using past tenses in describing their room by given picture. Hammid came in front of class and started to describe his kitchen: I had a …kitchen…. On the table and glass on the table and some glass…and beautiful flower….
This utterance showed that he himself corrected twice. Both accuracy and fluency can be seen to have been improved as the language was sustained and meaning is clear. It was an improvement because then onward students had started to realize and understand the structure and using of vocabulary.
As a result student made self correction which is independent learning and plays a key role in self-directed learning schemes. While doing group work activity some students got angry at others but interestingly they used English with each other.
This conversation does not have any speech filler and longer pauses. The mode of communication is clear as she used accurate language without making any major grammatical mistake because students had more space for talking and more freedom to express oral language.
Role play and discussion were used to give opportunities for students practice oral speeches as these also provided students with ample opportunities to get involved in classroom activities and lesson interactive. She is very good hearing… girl is very hard work and good… girls are very good student. Girls are beautiful Laughing …. It was previously mentioned that they made this mistake but now it got improved.
Moreover, pair work and group work were also found to be effective in language classroom as they involved students and motivated towards learning language. This seems to be supported with other research findings Bahdur, ; Shughri, ; Jabeen, ; Ghafoor, ; Ashraf, As from intervention stage, students had been instructed on using English conversations in classroom, as a result all cycles reveled that code switching of language1 was used very less and English was used more frequently.
They asked about their ability what someone can do. The participants, Mehrin and Khatija presented their interview in front of class: M: What can you do for…..
K: Of course, I can swim very well. M: How fast can you swim?. K: I can swim faster that anyone I know. M: How can you cook? K: My home umm..
M: You can sing a song? K: Yes, I can sing a song very well. M: So sing naa? I say you sing na Laughing K: No. Thank you.
In this interview dialogue both completed the dialogue without using and switching to L1. In the last question in which Mehrin laughed and demanded Khatija to sing a song, she used only a chunk of language 1 but the message is clear and grammatically correct too. They used very few pauses and no switched to Urdu but they used alternative words, such as Mehrin had done at the start. To be able to speak fluently and accuracy in a foreign language requires a lot of practice and involvement.
Speaking practice starts with practicing and drilling set phrases and repeating models. A great deal of time in language classroom is often spent on these repetitive exercises. After these practices, students started using English in classroom and rarely switched to L1 that was a sign of progress because initially they were reluctant to say even a few words.
Students used it whenever they came across a new word or got stuck between conversations. It supported students in fluency development and sustaining language.
It also encouraged them to use English as targeted second language. The learners sustain their speech with the help of code switching but finally it should be reduced. A teacher should understand that code switching is not hurdle in language learning but using it frequently is not helpful in learning and enhancing English OCSs.
In the beginning students' mistakes and errors were neglected, and more attention was given on maintaining anxiety free environment.
Many research studies such as Block, ; Dobson, ; Sadrud-Din, informed that an encouraging environment facilitates students to perform better in speaking skills. To encourage speech, first, establish a comfortable, safe environment, one in which the students feel accepted and worthy.
Speaking English Books
In all lesson students were provided conducive learning and engaging environment which enabled them to improve OCSs. For that students were treated with respect using encouraging language such as the one who speaks out even incorrect or wrong language is much better than one who never tries and I learn and improve when I am involved and engaged in the process of conversations.
It was found that encouraging environment enhanced students learning of OCSs and they started to participate in pair and group work and it further helped them to realize their mistakes and errors and also supported them for self and peer correction. Khatija: yes, I can play tennis very well.
M: Are you reading in English? Any one know Confused K: …laughing…. Yar tumhara jawab tha… that was your answer , yes, I am reading English very well. M: And you… can drive?
K: Yes, I can drive very well umm I am fast driver. Self and peer correction also reflects from the dialogue of Akram and Hammid: Akram: Can you speak Japanese?
Hammid: No, I can not speak Japanese. I can speak umm only two languages, ….. English and urdu. A: Can you play tennis? H: Yes I can play tennis.
A: Can you swim? H: Yes, I can swim anyone I know. A: How you learnt swimming?. H: I umm.. What are your abilities? A: My abilities? H: What playing…. A: I play cricket very well. H: How play cricket? You play very nice cricket? A: Hmm.. Despite that anyone I know…. Galat bola yar.
Say, I play cricket better than anyone I know. H: Really. What …. How you …. What about you writing and reading? A: Kia poch rehey ho tum, samaj mai nai aa raha?
How good reading and writing are A: I… my reading umm.. The above mentioned dialogue clearly revealed that both were using English and correcting each other. He remembered this structure which had been taught in previous lesson.
First he used 'I' but after short pause he used 'My' correct pronoun. Both corrected themselves and also realized their own mistakes. They sustained their dialogue by using speech fillers, having pauses and switching to L 1.
These are the strategies used by students in order to improve their OCSs in real classroom context. The dialogue showed that students improved their speaking skills because when correction and self realization starts then it is a sign of improvement.
It is also revealed by other research studies that errors support in developing oral proficiency Bahdur, ; Ashraf, ; Ghaffor; As a result student made self-correction which is independent learning and plays a key role in self-directed learning schemes. Can you tell me what Jean. My you are summer coat is red and white. A leather belt. Two participant role played.
Meher guest: please…bring a biryani and coffee. K: Many dishes…. M: fish fry is the best, if you have.. What are your daily K: Here you are routines?
How To Improve My English Communication - PDF Download
I go to school at 7;30 and I come to home by school…from school.. I see my dream, I see…um saw a What is your future Akeley rehgaye. My school building is very big. It school is.. As the first response of the participant such as who is Humza was replaced correctly in the post intervention stage with my friend name is Humza.
Additionally, pre-intervention responses shows that there are long pauses and very short answers but in post intervention short pauses and long answers with clear message and free of grammatical errors can be observed. This purpose was seen to be achieved as there was more accuracy and fluency in post- intervention speaking activities and responses. This comparison testing of their OCSs completely shows improvement which was brought by new teaching methods such as demonstrations, discussions, role plays, using worksheets, providing vocabulary in connection with lesson and finally continuous feedback.
As literature on second language learning also shows that teachers are change agents and action researchers, thus through an action research they can get students involved in the process of English language learning in real classroom environment.
Many researchers noted that classrooms are social environments Hall, and ELTs are active participants in the creation of classroom realities, how teachers talk and how teachers talk to learners is key element in organizing and facilitating learning.
Our study marked significant improvement in enhancing OCSs as we had incorporated communicative and interaction-based approaches to ELT which have suggested that teacher talk should be minimized in the classroom, thereby providing opportunities for learners to talk, and to practice and produce language.
It has implication all the classrooms where English as language is taught because the way language is used in the classroom remains broadly similar because whenever they are and whatever they are teaching, teachers in schools and other educational facilities are likely to face some similar practical tasks.
Our study also found that Students who are acquiring English as an additional language need to be afforded opportunities to practice their language skills and negotiate meaning with more proficient peers Fitts and Bowers, English language learners should have the chance to work with and communicate with their fluent English speaking peers on a regular basis and engage in instructional conversation that require critical thinking and more elaborated forms of language production Zwiers,It was depicted from the presentation of group activity work whose aim was using past tenses in describing their room by given picture.
Creating an enabling environment for students talk in ESL primary classrooms. Slattery, M. She is very good hearing… girl is very hard work and good… girls are very good student. Two participants instantly came as volunteer in front of class as either had called their names out since in previous observation it was found that without calling their names out they would not come to perform any activity.
In this research, data were collected English fluently outside the class. It further highlights self developed strategies of students in improving accuracy and fluency in which the National Curriculum for English Language NCEL was taken as a guiding tool and action planner through which systematic lessons were delivered in classrooms. Supporting English language learners: A guide for teachers and administrators.